The Great Web of Percy Harrison Fawcett. This logo is a trademark of "The Great Unknown, The Great Explorers" and "The Great Web of Percy Harrison Fawcett" - All Rights Reserved

The Great Web of Percy Harrison Fawcett. This logo is a trademark of "The Great Unknown, The Great Explorers" and "The Great Web of Percy Harrison Fawcett" - All Rights Reserved


The emergence of Colonel Fawcett’s secret city of ‘Z’

By Emmanouil Lalaios


The Hiding Place of Kephises (Cephissus)

The Greek inscription copied in 1753

The “search for Atlantis”

The Persian Daric

The mysterious letter of 'Z'

The idea of the “Z” letter in a map


Was Colonel Fawcett’s great objective, the point of ‘Z’, a Greek ancient city built by a highly advanced civilization, inhabited by a human race of unbelievable beings, and located in the dense and still unexplored rainforest of the Brazilian’s wilderness?


The mystery of Colonel Fawcett’s secret city of ‘Z’ emerges slowly from the past in an unbelievable theory concerning the destiny of this legendary British explorer in combination with his great objective to startle the world.


A new testimony that reverts the originality of Colonel Fawcett’s story bringing the explorer’s great objective, the city of ‘Z’ in another dimension beginning from another country’s territory located far away from the Amazon’s jungle; a territory that, even if it is basically located at a distant to Brazil place of our planet that has offered so much to the archaeology of the world with its very rich background in the history of its civilization and we talk about Greece, it was and still is in search by famous explorers in a hidden location of the Amazon’s rainforest in the wilderness of the Brazilian Mato Grosso. 


According to our investigators, this territory that was included in the routing of Colonel Fawcett’s last ill-fated expedition in 1925 now emerges suddenly and slowly from the heart of the most recent investigations to bring to our world a new amazing and hard to believe story that combines the secrets found in the still unexplored parts of the Amazonian rainforest with a Greek ancient civilization before the Hellenistic times and even more back to the Greek mythology period that reveals the unpredictable theory of a Greek city named Cephissus as Colonel Fawcett’s great objective, a story that, if it comes alive, would certainly startle the world.


The Hiding Place of Kephises (Cephissus)   Back to top

The Hard Way to The Universal Glory and Fame


Cephissus, the Greek mythological river God from the famous Elgin marbles collection located in the British Museum.

                                                                                                          Courtesy of Stathis Sidiropoulos


By Francisco de Sales do Lago

A Brazilian researcher, writer, teacher and retired lawyer who was born in Rio de Janeiro


The story covers the chapter six (6) of Francisco  do Lago's book 'O Transplante do Terremoto-A destruicao de Kefises (The earthquake's transplant and The destruction of Kefisus) that concerns the existence of a very old Greek city that was destroyed by the Portuguese Government after 1754; a city that Colonel Fawcett was in search for during his eighth ill-fated expedition into the Brazilian wilderness of Mato Grosso, which according to his research was Colonel Fawcett’s city of quest “Z” or Kefises named after the Greek mythological River God Cephissus.


There is no doubt that Percy Harrison Fawcett was fighting against windmills when he decided to search for the Greek city of Kephises in the Brazilian State of Bahia. With this assertion we mean to say that Fawcett knew exactly what he was looking about. He wasn’t an amateur adventurer; on the contrary, he was a scholar. After transcribing the “512 Document” at Rio de Janeiro’s National Library, Fawcett managed to know exactly what he would search for. We assume that, in this first stage, with the essential cooperation of his European geographer and paleographer friends, he proceeded to the decoding of the inscription on that document. 


Fawcett anticipated the results obtained here in Brazil by Bernardo de Azevedo da Silva Ramos. The Englishman knew that the deciphering of this inscription would be the key to the discovery of the origin of the hidden city. The hypothesis of Fawcett to have obtained the decoding of the inscription in Europe originates from a passage of his own in the book edited by his son, Brian Fawcett, in 1953, under the name of “Exploration Fawcett” (Chapter I, The Lost Mines of Muribeca, p. 23):


“At the opposite side of the palace, there was the ruin of another huge building, evidently a temple. Images of men, animals and birds covered walls that were still standing, and, above the main entrance, one could see an inscription that was, again, reliably copied by Raposo and one of his fellows”.


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The Greek inscription copied in 1753


Fawcett wrote that this inscription had been carefully copied, without mentioning, however, its deciphering. This may only derive from the fact that his European paleographer, ethnologist and philologist friends didn’t find any difficulty in decoding the inscription as a Greek construction, as well as our eminent fellow-countryman Bernardo de Azevedo da Silva Ramos also interpreted it, without trouble. This is the only logical argument to support the use of the “reliably copied” adverb to express the way in which this task was done. It is probable that soon afterwards Fawcett had deduced that the hidden city built in the banks of that broad and torrential river was named Kephises.


Fawcett analyzed the “location” of that city in the banks of the large river, and may have figured out that the Greek people who found the site, which received them so well, had honored the place with the same name of the river-god Kephises existing in the Attic plane, in Greece, so that it would, otherwise, be hard to justify the presence of the word Kephises in the entirety of the inscriptions copied at the hidden city in 1753. He didn’t, however, make any noise or propagation of his deduction. In the letters to his relatives and friends, Fawcett never mentioned the results of the decoding of those Greek characters. As it is known, all Fawcett’s correspondence was printed in the form of a book many years after his disappearing; the book already mentioned above.


Fawcett considered properly the significance of his deduction, and, in his mind, he anticipated its impact; this is to say, the astonishment that such a discovery – of a Greek city in Latin America – would cause in the scientific and academic environment. It isn’t difficult to understand the reason of his obstinate exploratory activity: he tried to fix the place of that Greek city. He wished to rival Heinrich Schliemann.


Fawcett was probably intending to communicate his discovery to the Royal Geographic Society in London, most likely in the course of an official ceremony, before all the geographers and scientists. This is the reason why we cannot find specific references about the definitive objectives of his wanderings and of his real exploratory purposes.


The “search for Atlantis”   Back to top

The “search for Atlantis” was just a plausible publicity way to collect funds, and all the mysticism created around the “Z” letter by his interlocutors, authorities, pressmen and eventual sponsors were favorable to his intents because they helped deviating the attention of his true purposes. Fawcett didn’t have resources of his own, and this is why he created special situations to keep apart everyone who tried to penetrate his “cuirass”, his well-known shyness, his inseparable mistrust of everything and everyone. Nobody should know he was searching for Kephises.


Some authors are neglectful, as they do not recognize Fawcett’s intellectual ability and his exploratory temper. Their absolute lack of imagination induces them to mistake. In their writings, they only attribute to the Englishman the interest in an easy enrichment through the finding of gold, silver or precious stone mines. This assertion is false and certainly far away from reality. As a matter of fact, Fawcett had to keep his finding secret until the moment of its official announcement. This is why he was misunderstood and considered as a mystical man, a deceiver or a fool. But Fawcett was indeed an idealist, a scholar in the best sense of the word, besides of being fearless and brave.


Because of all these reasons - not yet well assimilated nowadays but perfectly conceivable - Fawcett used to disguise his wandering by transmitting fragmented information in his correspondence, as he intended to be the first scientist to enter Kephises - in the same way that Hiram Bingham had done few years before, in 1911, when he entered Machu Picchu, the hidden city of the Incas, and who since then became a worldwide famous archaeologist and a teacher of the Yale University.


But it happened to Fawcett to lack resources of his own. He also didn’t know how to “sell” his activity, his image, his objectives. He didn’t even have assistants, or, like Bingham, generous funds provided by an university. He wasn’t either a millionaire – as Schliemann – who could support explorations with his own money. Fawcett had severe difficulties in obtaining funds for his wanderings, for his exploratory activity. He had to make promises and in the meanwhile some concessions in order to obtain the funds necessary to his search. 


But, on the other hand, he used to remember the image of Nemesis, with a finger over her lips, as indicating that to prevent the divine wrath he should be prudent and discreet. Above all he should make efforts to keep reserve, to avoid writing in the letters to his friends or relatives anything beyond the strictly essential. However, Fawcett permitted himself anticipating the impact and the astonishment of his discovery in writing the following words in one of his last letters:


“The answer to the enigma of the Ancient South America - and maybe of the Prehistoric World - will be found when those ancient cities are located and opened to the scientific research. I know these cities exist...”

(Transcribed from “Exploração Fawcett”, Lisbon, Edit. Nacional de Public. 1953).


This was Fawcett’s own personal manner of keeping intruders away. Probably, much more than any other subject to Her Majesty, Fawcett followed up in the newspapers the fantastic results obtained by Lord Carnarvon and Howard Carter in Egypt. But he would also be fighting against windmills when decided to search for Kephises in the Mato Grosso province. Even if he had adopted the criteria and methods used by his famous archaeologist predecessors, he would hardly succeed.


We must remember that Fawcett was, above all, a surveyor, a cartographer and an impetuous boundary marker. This is to say that, in spite of being an yachtsman when he was young, and of having traced the famous “Ichthoid curve”, he was farther more turned to the earth than to the water. In other words, Fawcett searched Kephises incessantly by walking across the land instead of having tried to find the city along the banks of the rivers, with much more chances to find it. He should have searched only along the rivers.


As it seems, Fawcett didn’t pay much attention to the fact that those first archaeologists sustained themselves on local inhabitants, as, for example, Ahmed Gurgar and the other “gaffirs” who helped Carter, or, as Bingham, who rested upon local guides as Arteaga and Carrasco - deep connoisseurs of the Andean region of Urubamba and who didn’t hesitate in pointing out to him the precise site of Macchu Pichu in exchange of some more soles, that is, a few pieces of money beyond the salary agreed before.


When reading once again with greater attention the text of the “512 Document”, we can find the phrase: “A torrential river, impetuously wide and inviting, margins this square”. Well, this words lead us to the following reasoning: in accepting the deciphering of Silva Ramos, who stated that the inscription composed by the characters found in the center of this square was a “Greek construction” – according to the 512 Document – we are induced to consider some elementary premises. First: the builders and engravers who erected the square and inscribed the characters must have been a Greek people. Second: if they were Greek, they came, necessarily, from Greece. Third: as they arrived here, they must have used successfully their naval building and seafaring knowledge.


At this point of our reasoning, by converting our premises in acceptable hypotheses, we are compelled to a more comprehensive examination of the history of the navigation developed by the Greek cities. It is known that the most important Greek cities of the past were Athens and Sparta. It is also known that Sparta was a terrestrial power and that Athens was an eminently maritime one. Thus, by means of a simple exclusion, we could never admit that Greek people from Sparta could cross-seas and oceans in voyages not only notoriously dangerous but also long lasting. So, it remains to us the perfectly acceptable alternative of appointing the Athenians as the probable Greek navigators, builders and engravers. This is to say, men who owed to Athens their sailing, architectural and building skills, with the use of solid materials as granite and basalt, and also the mastership of their artists, sculptors and engravers. Consequently, we can figure out that Athens was the homeland of the people who cast anchor here, in the margin of “a torrential river, impetuously wide and inviting”, erecting portals, palaces, obelisks, sculptures and monuments that would amaze, in 1753, a field officer and the members of his company.


Following the same way of thinking, we note that a new survey of the history of that city becomes necessary in order to know which of the Athenian statesmen were defeated, compelled or condemned to banishment, to survival, to salvation. And finally, in addition to the identification of the exiled, we must know if the name of these men is mentioned or referred in the inscriptions found at that supposedly hidden city, discovered by the field officer in 1753. If this reference and this identity can be established, will remain the certainty that Greek people entered a torrential river, “impetuously wide”, building afterwards a city in America, for this is the central theme of the 512 Document. In no way this document can be considered as a myth, a jugglery or a “fiction of the spirit”, as strangely asserted by Pedro Calmon. In this respect, it is worth remembering that the inscriptions deciphered by Silva Ramos refer to Pisistratus and Tucidides as being the great defeated Athenian personages.


The Persian Daric   Back to top

Also, in addition to the inscription in Greek construction and to the names deciphered from the characters found in that city – world-widely associated to men who played an important part in the political story of ancient Greece -, we have the undeniable fact that the field officer found, in 1753, a gold coin, which he fully described in the 512 Document. Searching into Numismatics, we can state, without any doubt, that the coin found was a Persian daric.


"It is exactly similar (100%) to that coin found in 1753, Francisco said, (or, eventually it can be the same coin of 1753) but nobody knows if it is. In my opinion that coin was sent to Lisabon as an attachment to the Original Manuscript. But as the Regent Prince Don Joao VI comes to Brazil in 1808 and with him the Portuguese treasure, the official Documents, official papers, the King's Library and the Portuguese Court... maybe this coin, would be the same of 1753. The only image in the coin represents the King Artaxerxes II (King of Persia (404-359) whose reign was marked by many rebellions and by a peace agreement with Sparta (386). Died 359 BC), from the Achaemenid Period, a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire)."


And now, putting forward a conjecture, we believe it was quite possible to the Persian piece of money to be among the values brought here by the exiled Greek citizens, as they were contemporary – the Greek people mentioned above and the Persian coin. Was it a coincidence?



The Persian Daric similar to one discovered by the field officer in the city of 1753


These sectional considerations regarding the presence of European peoples in South America long before the period of the named Columbian or Cabraline discoveries are based on scientific evidences, known for a long time, and widely spread in the works of the eminent paleontologist Peter W. Lund after his findings and studies at the Lagoa Santa region, in Minas Gerais. In one of his letters to the recently created Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro (IHGB), in Rio de Janeiro, this prominent scientist declared as follows:


“... We can see, thus, that America was already inhabited before the first rays of History did appear in the horizon of the Old World, and that the peoples who lived there in that remote period were of the same race of the inhabitants of the Discoveries time. In fact, these two results do not adjust very well to the ideas generally adopted about the origin of the natives of this part of the world, because, as the period of its first peopling passes away, their ancient inhabitants keeping, at the same time, the national characteristics, the idea of a secondary or derived origin becomes more and more vanished. And, nevertheless, the facts that seem to indicate several parts of the contact between the most ancient inhabitants of the two parts of the world can not be denied. The ancient skulls excavated in various places of Europe show in part the same depression of the forehead as the depression that characterizes those found in this country; the wedges or stone axes, generally called “coriscos” and copiously found in all the interior of Brazil, show the most perfect resemblance, not only in their shape but also in the material of which they are made, with those found in the northern countries of Europe, to the point as, putting them together, one can not differ the first from the others; well known are the various analogies presented by some ancient monuments of Mexico and those of Hindustan and Egypt; but one could hardly suspect that Brazil would also show some contact with this last country in the old times, and however, the fossil remains I mention here constitute the evidence of such a coincidence”.

(Transcribed from the Trimestrial Publication of the IHGB, Number 21, December 14, 1844, Supplement to the Book VI, page 7).  


It is appropriate to emphasize that the scientific writings of Lund were published in Austria, in Vienna, and that they caused a deep impact and astonishment in the scientific and academic environment. Since then, the universal science started accepting the evidences of the unquestionable presence of Europeans in America. From this moment on, there were numerous findings related to the presence of Vikings, Phoenicians, Greeks and of peoples from other civilizations of the Classical Antiquity in Americas, in periods and dates far more anterior to the arrival of the “Admiral of the Seas” – the navigator Christopher Columbus – to Central America. Special relief and importance were given to the great navigation and discoveries.


Percy Harrison Fawcett, a scholar and expert in the works of Lund, was also an upholder of science and of Lund’s scientific role. In his book “Exploration Fawcett” already mentioned above, at the page 262 of the chapter XX, under the title “At Dawn”, he writes:


“The Danish naturalist Peter William Lund wrote: “The character of the Central Plateau of Brazil shows that it was part of a vast continent while the rest of the World was still submerged in the waters of the Ocean, or raised from them under the form of islands of small extent. Thus Brazil must be considered as the most ancient continent of our planet”


Well, as Lund proved by means of his researches that the fossil skulls and other human bones he found in America were coincident with others found in Europe, and as Fawcett believed his scientific work to the point of mentioning the eminent Danish naturalist and transcribing part of his texts in his own book, it seems he had no doubt about the presence of Greek people here in Brazil many centuries before the arrival of the Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral. 


His special and particular evidence of this fact was the deciphering, in Europe, of the inscription copied by the field officer in the hidden city in 1753 and reproduced in the 512 Document. It is interesting to point out that Fawcett started his book exactly with the well-known story of this manuscript. At this time, in 1924, Fawcett also knew that the coin described in the 512 Document was a Persian daric. And he didn’t ignore its coinage was anterior or contemporary to the Greek personages Pisistratus and Tucidides. The sum of all this elements gave him the sureness that Kephises was the Greek city he wished so much to find. In his writings and searches, the legendary Atlantis was obviously a mere dissimulation.  


The mysterious letter of 'Z'   Back to top

Colonel Fawcett' great objective


We now try to explain the theory behind that mysterious letter “Z” which appears on Fawcett’s last mail. Later when we finished, we return to this He says “Z” was the city he was in search of: “The city of my quest”. Why has he chose this specific letter? In our opinion, he did what any other researcher who has been to the city mentioned by Florence would have done; he took use a pencil or pen to trace on a map the course of the rivers Tietê, Parnaíba, Paraná, Pardo, Coxim, Taquari, Furo-Mirim, Paraguay, São Lourenço and Cuyabá up to Cuyabá City. Fawcett utilized the “America Meridional” map (available in different sizes at the National Library of the City of Rio de Janeiro), which had been used by Florence in 1826, roughly a century before. It was owned by the British cartographists Aaron Arrowsmith, father & son and edited in 1810. But Fawcett did not take the opportunity to mention the map on his mail as Florence have did in his very interesting narratives. In a glance, Fawcett described on his mail the same path previously taken by Florence and Langsdorff expedition. It is felt compelled to rewrite Hercules Florence’s description of this incredible adventure throughout the Brazilian rivers on vessels specially built in São Paulo for this long-lasting trip:


“It is actually admirable that one travels for a total of 530 léguas* throughout 10 rivers no more than 2 léguas wide from Porto Feliz to Cuyabá, as it is no less exciting to watch the big vessels passing over the mountains.”


(“Viagem de Porto Feliz à cidade de Cuiabá”, in “Esboço da Viagem feita pelo Sr. de Langsdorff no interior do Brasil, desde Setembro de1825 até Março de 1829. ” Translated from French by Alfredo D’Escragnolle de Taunay for “Revista do IHGB, Tomo XXXVIII, page 402. 1875)


* When Florence refers to Lιgua that means a very old measure of distance. One Legua and a half is 9.900 meters.


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We believe that the idea of the “Z” letter must have come to Fawcett from the tracing above


When Fawcett ended his tracing, on the map, of all the rivers already mentioned,  he noticed that the design had formed re-entrant and alternate angles in the shape of a Z. The Z letter of Zigzag in the English language, Fawcett’s mother tongue. He also verified that the English word zigzag originated in the Greek term Zickzack, which has the same meaning of the Portuguese corresponding  Ziguezague: a broken or sinuous line forming re-entrant and alternate angles. The Z letter would therefore, synthesize his quest for Kephises, or, simply, his Kephises. Other  theories about the Z letter in Fawcett’s correspondence may arise from one moment to another, so, by way of precaution let’s break at once this “Columbus egg” in adopting the Z theory about the rivers crossed by Florence.


Everything fitted. Fawcett was searching for the Greek city of Kephises, visited by the field officer at an unknown place in the year of 1753. He intend to check, first, that address mentioned by Florence in his narrative, as the 512 Document doesn’t refer to the location of the field officer’s hidden city. Next, Fawcett was expecting to find and to investigate the remains of that “ruined Babylon of  giant architects”, the “round pedestals”, the “column ruins” as “those ancient towers in Italy”; as a matter of fact “the remains of a huge city” emphasized by Florence.

But Fawcett was living in the 20th century. So, it wouldn’t no longer make sense to accomplish the same Zigzag done by Florence almost a hundred years before. Fawcett was a modern explorer. He used the railway. Departing from São Paulo in his three attempts – always after receiving doses of antidotal serum against snake bites through his old friend Vital Brasil, of the Butantã Institute – he traveled in an almost straight line. And this also sparing time and money, as his resources were few and didn’t come from the Russian Czars, who paid for the immense expenses made by the Von Langsdorff Consul. By the way, there were no more Czars at the time of Fawcett’s last explorations. They had already been banished from Moscow by the proletarian masses.

Because he had never mentioned the name of Florence in his letters, nobody, considered Fawcett, would think of associating the re-entrant and alternate angles of river’s tracing to his secret code-letter “Z” to link “his City” to the one visited by Florence in 1827. If Fawcett had succeeded in discovering it at the site mentioned by Florence, or in any other place during his quest, and did find at least one of the group of inscriptions copied in 1753 and reproduced in the 512 Document, he could prove the existence of a Greek city in South America. But he is thought to have never discovered the “Cyclopean City” of Florence, or even the Greek inscriptions.

We also believe that Fawcett was mistaken about the secret when it comes to a potential association between the letter “Z” and the courses of the rivers through which Florence has traveled. This apparent secret ended up not being inviolate al all. This does not seem to be his only mistake. We believe his fatal mistake was to bring over to the jungles of Mato Grosso the inexperienced Jack Fawcett and Rimell A. Raleigh during the 1925 expedition. As per Fawcett’s letters disclosed many years later, is was clear that Fawcett was very worried about the health of the young Raleigh, whose leg was severely injured by ticks. It is believed that the potential injuries might have changed the course of Fawcett’s original plans, evidenced by the fact that has visited some friends’ farmers that lie far from the original course.


Lets return to our prior explanation. Supposing that – as it really happened many centuries later to Pedro Álvares Cabral – there could be natives waiting on the beaches after the Greek boats were seen in the horizon, we can also think that these Greek seafarers tried to find isolated, or even less hostile places to land in absolute security. Though, it is licit to believe the Greeks visitors kept on sailing until they found a safe place to go on shore. Cabral would do exactly the same. He would sail until finding, in 1500, a Safe Port – Porto Seguro – in the coast of what is now the Bahia State.


The Greek voyagers continued their course until entering the outfall of some torrential river. They navigated this river upstream till they found the place where, afterwards, that square which geometric shape was considered perfect by the field officer in 1753 would be built.


It is probable that this square which margins the river, before being so, had been a safe anchor-ground for the vessels. The spring of limpid and crystalline waters the Greek travelers found at a distance of a cannon shot in the opposite margin to the anchor-ground must have been, much likely, one of the main reasons for them to choose that place as their definitive setting site. After establishing the location, they begun searching the materials for building the city they called Kephises - as a tribute to their Phocean Attic plane river-god – which architecture would long afterwards amaze the field officer who reported to the Portuguese government the finding of this hiding city in 1754.


The materials – granite of different colors and in great quantity as well as crystal and wood – were abundant. They must have come of that “mountain range so high that it seemed to touch the stratosphere and serve as a throne for the windstorms” not very far from the Greeks setting place. Only one attentive reading of the 512 Document is enough to validate the hypotheses enounced above.


After all these considerations, we believe that the best way to search for the hidden city of Kephises will be through the rivers and not by land. Fawcett proved he was fighting against windmills while trying to find it in this last way. Any contemporary explorer who tries to find the Greek city by land will also fight at windmills and will never find Kephises. Thus, it is advisable to proceed to a wide study of the orography of the Brazilian rivers, including that of the River da Prata basin. In these studies, all the fluvial ways must be considered, even those now impassable as a result of changes due to the recent human activity as the building of dams, the pollution caused by deforestation, burning or the effects of cataclysms. Then, after eliminating some of the rivers, others – with estuaries that could have attracted the Greek navigators – must be selected. From this moment on, the remaining rivers must be studied as deeply as possible to try to locate, with the indispensable help of aero photogrammetry, the right banks of the selected ones to search for the ancient site of the once opulent Greek city of Kephises. But the explorer must be aware of using low altitude aerophotogrammetry if he wants to succeed. The pictures in infrared film obtained by satellites will be very useful to this objective. It is said that the National Aeronautics Space and Administration (NASA) has accumulated an extensive material concerning the Brazilian rivers.


We mention the “right bank” of a river because it is hard to conceive – according to the “512 Document” – a monument in the center of a square, with an obelisk in which top there was the statue of a man, described as being with the left hand over his hip and the fore finger of the right hand pointing to the North Pole if this square was located in the left bank the river (see the text of the 512 Document).


In the modern squares built along the coastline or the bank of a river, the central monument and statue are turned to the sea or to a river and not to the countryside. See the example of the Barão de Mauá statue at the Praça Mauá, in Rio de Janeiro. That being so, we can admit, in the case of the statue referred by the field officer, that if the man represented in it was looking in the direction of the North Pole, this would be impossible if that statue were in a square located in the left bank of the river. We must either remember that the field officer mentioned having walked three days downstream to examine the rocks of the margins in search of gold nuggets brought by the flood. This is to say, he walked in the direction of the river’s mouth. However, looking at any hydrographic map of South America, we notice that the greater number of the navigable rivers flow into the Atlantic ocean. Flowing, hence, from their source to discharge in the East.


Thus, the field officer and his company crossed a certain distance in the eastern direction, until, according to his report, they found a large waterfall. Probably, this waterfall was not located in the section of the river covered in the three days mentioned before. It should be part of a secondary river, of an affluent of that “torrential river”


Every search for the hidden city must begin at the mouth and end in the source of all rivers chosen, because it was from the mouth that the Greek people arrived to the site of Kephises. We must also remember that Hercules Florence and the other members of the “Langsdorff Expedition” sailed along rivers from Porto Feliz, in São Paulo, to Cuiabá, in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, having to walk and carry their vessels only over a small extension of land, and that this happened in the year of 1826. But the Greek navigators could have started their course in the mouth of the River da Prata, for example, until arriving to the site of Kephises.


Another important point: still “yesterday”, in the nineteenth century, large cargo ships making the route between Hamburg, in Germany, and Corumbá, in Mato Grosso, to change Brazilian ore for German machinery and agricultural implements also entered the mouth of the da Prata River in order to reach the Brazilian inland.


There are lots of possibilities to be analyzed until the site of Kephises is found. This will be undoubtedly a huge task that will require a lot of research and, primarily, resources enough to hire modern equipment as “jet” helicopters, air boats, satellite photographs, Global Positioning System (GPS), and, of course, large amounts of willingness and time until one can be sure of the location of the ruins of the hidden city, but not those described as so by the field officer. The ruins of Kephises to be searched now are the ones resulting from the use, to a large extent, of powder by the Portuguese after 1754. 


We must imagine, thus, a thick vegetation grown up around all the stones, surrounding rocks and broken obelisks and think of an almost impenetrable forest at the banks of this river, covering nearly completely all sorts of stones and rocks. And this is, by the way, what is really seen in the banks of the rivers of the Brazilian inland. On the other hand, in spite of all these difficulties, metals – being which they may be - must still exist in this area, and it is not impossible that they can be found with the help of a simple metal detector of the various kinds sold at the European and American markets. See, for example.


Anyone who wishes to try to find the hidden city must bear with himself a lot of antidotal against snake bites, mosquitoes repellents, must be vaccinated against smallpox and yellow fever, and also count upon the equipment mentioned above, among hundreds of others. The outcome of this search, that is, the discovery of Kephises, will be determined by the accuracy of the orographic studies and its conclusions, the amount of the resources invested and by the estimated length of time of the project - which will be rather different from Fawcett’s quixotic adventures, because all the searching activity will be fluvial or aerial and fluvial and centered on the right banks of the selected rivers. At some 9 or 10 km. of the selected sites there must exist a cordillera, a mountain range of a certain height. The presence of a waterfall will not be of the same importance, as it may have its source in the mountains. The Santo Antonio Waterfall, at the Jarí River, in the Pará State, is a typical example of a river waterfall.

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